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Research and Practice in Risk Assessment and Toxicology

The principles of Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement were developed over 60 years ago providing a framework for performing more humane animal research. Since then, these principles have been embedded in national and international legislation and regulations on the use of animals in scientific procedures, and the policies of organizations that fund or conduct animal research. The innovative non-animal methods that you will learn in our Master of Science in Toxicology for Human Risk Assessment program, will help implement the 3Rs—especially Replacement.


  • Putting Public Health into Practice
    For students in labs and classrooms, legislation making its way through Congress can seem far away...MORE

►Pioneers Since 1981:
Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing Timeline


60 Years of the 3Rs: Lessons Learned and the Road Ahead - SYMPOSIUM (video)
Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing

Humane Science in Risk Assessment & Beyond(video)
Alan Goldberg, PhD
Eminent Toxicologist Lecture Series - Society of Toxicology 

New Technology Advances to Improve Toxicity Testing and Disease Modeling (podcast)
Thomas Hartung, MD
Finding Genius Podcast

Food for Thought...Toxicity testing in the 21st century beyond environmental chemicals

Antidepressant Harms Baby Neurons in Lab-Grown "Mini-Brains"

"There's a growing concern that we have an epidemic of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, and that these might be caused by exposures to common drugs or other chemicals..." Thomas Hartung, MD | Science Daily: Antidepressant harms baby neurons in lab-grown 'mini-brains' 

EPA's bold step forward: Good for animals and science, better for people

"...research universities (including my own) are also working hard to implement this vision." Paul Locke, DrPH, JD | The Washington Post

Researchers Create ‘Mini-Brains’ in Lab To Study Neurological Diseases  

"A lot of drug development has failed because the animal models don't represent humans...there is a very big desire to get models that are more human." Thomas Hartung, MD  |  The Baltimore Sun: Hopkins Scientists Develop Mini-Brains in Promising Research 

Caramel Color in Soft Drinks and Exposure to 4-Methylimidazole: A Quantitative Risk Assessment 

"Soft drink consumers are being exposed to an avoidable and unnecessary cancer risk from an ingredient that is being added to these beverages simply for aesthetic purposes..." Keeve Nachman, PhD |  Science Daily: Popular soda ingredient, caramel color, poses cancer risk to consumers