Energy Management and Alternative Technologies
We use optimization, economics, and decision analysis to plan, operate, and analyze power systems and their environmental effects, and ecosystem restoration. In the Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, students study a range of systems analysis, economics, and statistical methods, which are widely used for private sector decisions (especially operation and design of engineered systems, power supply); public infrastructure (transport, water supply); and public policy (simulating how private market efficiency and pollution emissions will respond to public policy changes, and the incidence of benefits and costs). Our policy analysis work is rich technological and environmental detail. Such detail permits more realistic understanding of how policy can affect, for instance, costs, air emissions, land use decisions, and fuel use in the electric power sector.
We develop models for optimizing transmission grids for renewable energy that recognize the large uncertainties we face concerning where, what types, and the amounts of renewable sources that will be developed. In particular, we use two-stage stochastic programming to ask: what transmission investments should be made now, and which ones should be delayed, given the uncertain response of the power market to policy, technology, and economic changes? We applied this method first in the UK and now in the Western U.S. We found that disregarding uncertainty results in significantly inferior solutions, wasting money and decreasing the economic and environmental benefits of renewable power.
What are the optimal sediment diversion sizes and configurations for restoring the Mississippi River Delta? We apply integer programming together with detailed models of water and sediment diversion and land building to identify cost-effective portfolios of so-called engineered avulsions. Design parameters include the width, depth, and vertical placement of each structure in the river's levee. The analysis shows that large avulsions reaching deep in the water column are essential for building large amounts of land.
Numerous municipal, agriculture, and industrial wastewaters contain substantial levels of organic carbon and residual nutrients, especially nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The release of these chemicals into the waste streams represents a loss of critically scarce resources that must then be replaced from fresh resources, such as by obtaining P from limited land resources or generating the N fertilizers by ammonia synthesis. The goal of our research is to involve biological recovery with algae and yeast to capture N and P from dilute liquid agricultural waste streams and then concentrate these elements as biomass. The algae, yeast, and organic carbon are then subjected to anaerobic biodegradation to generate biogas (e.g., methane) as an energy source and to release the N and P in a more concentrated form for recapture.
Ed Bouwer, PhD
Bouwer’s research interests encompass factors that influence biotransformation of contaminants; bioremediation for control of contaminated soils and groundwaters; biofilm kinetics; biological processes design in wastewater, industrial, and drinking water treatment; and transport and fate of microorganisms in porous media.
Ben Hobbs, PhD
Hobbs' research interests in this area encompass stochastic electric power planning models, multi-objective and risk analysis, mathematical programming models of imperfect energy markets, environmental and energy systems analysis and economics, and ecosystem management
Paul Locke, JD, DrPH
Locke’s research and practice target the intersection of environmental health sciences, policy and law in the areas of radiation policy and law and toxicity testing. His areas of study include alternatives to animals in biomedical testing and toxicology, radon risk science and policy, radiation risk analysis, uranium mining, high-level radioactive waste disposal and the application of low dose radiobiology to policy making.
Scot Miller, PhD
Scot studies greenhouse gases and air pollution. Effective climate and air quality regulations depend upon reliable emissions estimates. Scot works to improve these estimates from local to global scales. His existing projects focus on global change in the Arctic, greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, and emissions from energy industries (e.g., coal, oil, and natural gas). Scot’s research also utilizes statistics, high performance computing, and tools for big data.
Roni Neff, PhD
Dr. Neff's three primary focuses are wasted food, meat consumption and climate change, and urban food system resilience. She is working on an NSF-funded project focused on modeling interdependencies between food, energy and water systems.
Brian Schwartz, MD
Schwartz is an environmental epidemiologist investigating a broad range of environmental exposures and diseases, from specific toxicants like lead and other metals, to newer concerns such as the environmental health consequences of climate change, food production, and unconventional natural gas development.